Computational audio content analysis

This glossary collects key terms from the field of computational audio content analysis. This glossary aims to provide Finnish translations for key terms in this field to stabilize the terminology. To make it usable also for others than Finnish researchers, a brief English definition is added for each term with links to Wikipedia and Wiktionary. Furthermore, some of the terms have been translated into German, Spanish, and French through Wikipedia. The glossary does not try to be complete, as it is a work in progress.

Data file used to create this glossary is published as repository:

If you see an error or you want to contribute, make a pull request to the repository or send me an email.

Special thanks to Tomasz Mąka for the Polish translations.

Dictionaries and glossaries from related fields:

Terms 394, Translations 286 100 103 107 120 , Updated 2021-02-15



The fraction of system output which was predicted correctly

See also: evaluation metric

German Genauigkeit, Exaktheit
Spain exactitud, precisión
Finland tarkkuus
France précision, justesse, exactitude
Poland dokładność, precyzja

acoustic feature

See also: feature

Finland akustinen piirre
Poland cecha akustyczna

acoustic model

in speech recognition system, model learned from acoustic data

Finland akustinen malli
Poland model akustyczny

acoustic scene

Poland scena akustyczna

activation function

in neural network, a function to define the output of a neuron

Spain Función de activación
Finland aktivaatiofunktio
France Fonction d'activation
Poland funkcja aktywacji

active learning

a learning technique where algorithm selects the data it learns from

Finland aktiivinen oppiminen
Poland aktywne uczenie


German Aggregation
Spain agregación
Finland yhdistäminen, aggregointi
France agrégation
Poland agregacja

Amazon mechanical turk (AMT)

crowdsourcing marketplace enabling the use of human intelligence to perform tasks


adding metadata to audio

Finland annotointi
Poland adnotacja, przypis

area under the curve (AUC)

artificial intelligence (AI)

an ability to have machines act with apparent intelligence

German Künstliche Intelligenz
Spain inteligencia artificial
Finland tekoäly
France intelligence artificielle
Poland sztuczna inteligencja

assisted living

a housing facility for people with disabilities or for adults who cannot or choose not to live independently

German Betreutes Wohnen
Poland mieszkalnictwo wspomagane

audio classification

See also: classification

Finland äänimateriaalien luokittelu
Poland klasyfikacja akustyczna

audio dataset

a collection of audio examples used for system development

Finland audiotietokanta

audio signal processing

Finland audiosignaalin käsittely
Poland przetwarzanie sygnałów akustycznych

audio source separation

Finland äänilähteiden separointi

audio tagging

audiovisual data

Finland audiovisuaalinen data


relating to hearing

Finland kuulonmukainen, kuuloon liittyvä, kuulo-
Poland audytywny, słuchowy

auditory event

Subjective perception of sound

See also: auditory scene

German Hörereignis
Finland kuulotapahtuma
France Audition humaine

auditory scene

Finland kuulomaisema

auditory scene analysis (ASA)

a model proposed by Albert Bregman for the basis of auditory perception

Finland kuulomaisema-analyysi, kuulema-analyysi


background noise

Finland taustamelu, taustakohina
Poland szum tła

backpropagation, backprop

method used in neural networks to calculate gradient descent

Spain propagación hacia atrás
Finland vastavirta, takaisinvirtaus, takaisinlevitys
France rétropropagation du gradient

bag of frames

representing frames without taking into account their order

balanced accuracy (BACC)

baseline system

system used as reference point for comparing how well currently developed system is performing


in neural network training, a set of examples used in one iteration for model training

Finland ryhmä, erä

batch normalization (BN)

a technique for improving the performance and stability of neural networks

See also: deep neural network, neural network, batch

Finland ryhmänormalisointi, eränormalisointi


technique used in sensor arrays for directional signal reception or transmission

Spain conformación de haces
Finland keilanmuodostus
Poland kształtowanie wiązki


an ordered sequence of two items

See also: N-gram

Spain bigrama

binary classification

a type of classification which outputs one of two mutually exclusive classes

Finland binäärinen luokittelu
Poland klasyfikacja binarna

binary mask

Finland binäärinen maski


related to two ears

Finland binauraalinen, kaksikorvainen
Poland obuuszny, dwuuszny


cross-disciplinary science that combines biology and acoustics

German Bioakustik
Spain bioacústica
Finland bioakustiikka
France bioacoustique
Poland bioakustyka

block mixing

data augmentation technique

See also: data augmentation


a machine learning technique which iteratively combines weak classifiers into a classifier with higher accuracy

Finland oppimisen kiihdyttäminen

Systematically going through all possible candidate solutions for the problem

See also: exhaustive search

German Brute-Force-Methode
Spain Búsqueda de fuerza bruta
Finland raakavoimahaku
France Recherche exhaustive



a group to which items are assigned based on similarity or defined criteria

Finland luokka, kategoria
Poland kategoria


France cepstre

class label

Finland luokkatunnus


identification of which categories an item belong

German Klassifizierung
Spain clasificación
Finland luokittelu, luokitus
France classement, classification

classification model

See also: model, classification

classification of events, activities and relationships (CLEAR)

evaluation campaign organized on 2006 and 2007

classification threshold

See also: classification


See also: classification

Finland luokittelija, luokitin
Poland klasyfikator

closed set classification


See also: cluster analysis

German Cluster, Klumpen, geschlossene Erfassungsgruppe
Spain conglomerado
Finland ryhmä, ryväs, klusteri
France grappe, conglomérat

cluster analysis

German Clusteranalyse
Spain análisis de conglomerados, clasificación automática
Finland ryhmittelyanalyysi, ryväsanalyysi, klusterianalyysi
France analyse des conglomérats


grouping related examples together

German Verklumpung, verklumpend, in Klumpen auftretend
Spain clasificación
Finland ryhmittely, ryhmittelyanalyysi, klusterointi, ryvästäminen
France classification, classement
Poland analiza skupień

cognitive modeling

Finland kognitiivinen mallinnus
Poland modelowanie kognitywne

collaborative learning

See also: federated learning

computational audio content analysis

See also: content analysis

Finland äänen laskennallinen sisältöanalyysi

computational auditory scene analysis (CASA)

Finland laskennallinen kuulomaisema-analyysi, laskennallinen kuulema-analyysi

computational linguistics

an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective

Finland tietokonelingvistiikka

computational modeling

Finland laskennallinen mallinnus

computer audition (CA)

field of study of algorithms and systems for audio understanding by machine

Spain audición por computadora

confidence interval (CI)

interval estimate computed from the statistics of the observed data, that might contain the true value of an unknown population parameter

German Konfidenzintervall, Vertrauensintervall
Spain intervalo de confianza
Finland luottamusväli
France intervalle de confiance

confusion matrix

an NxN table to summarize classification performance (predicted class versus actual class)

Finland sekaannusmatriisi
France matrice de confusion

connectionist temporal classification (CTC)

constant-Q cepstral coefficients (CQCC)

constant-Q transform (CQT)

content analysis

German Inhaltsanalyse
Spain análisis de contenidos
Finland sisältöanalyysi
France analyse de contenu
Poland analiza treści


Finland ympäristö



mathematical operation of two functions to produce a third function that expresses how the shape of one is modified by the other

German Faltung
Spain convolución
Finland konvoluutio
France convolution, produit de composition
Poland splot

convolutional neural network (CNN)

a neural network with convolutional layers along with pooling and fully connected layers

See also: neural network, deep neural network

Spain redes neuronales convolucionales
Finland konvoluutioverkko
France réseau neuronal convolutif

convolutional recurrent neural network (CRNN)


Finland kokoelma, aineisto
Poland korpus, zbiór

critical band

the frequency bandwidth of the "auditory filter" created by the cochlea

German Frequenzgruppe
Spain bandas críticas
Finland kriittinen kaista, kriittinen kaistanleveys
Poland pasmo krytyczne


a method for estimating generalization of a system for new data by reserving a subset of dataset only for testing

German Kreuzvalidierung, Kreuzvalidierungsverfahren
Spain validación cruzada
Finland ristiinvalidointi, ristivalidointi
France validation croisée
Poland kroswalidacja, sprawdzian krzyżowy


Finland joukkoistaminen, talkoistaminen



Finland data, havaintoaineisto

data acquisition

data augmentation

artificially increasing the number of training examples

Finland aineiston täydennys, datan laajennus

data post-processing

See also: data preprocessing

Finland datan jälkikäsittely, aineiston jälkikäsittely

data preprocessing

See also: data post-processing

Finland datan esikäsittely, aineiston esikäsittely

decision boundary

learned separating boundary between classes

Finland päätösraja

decision tree

a learning method using tree-like decision graph

Finland päätöspuu
Poland drzewo decyzyjne

deep learning

a multi-level algorithm that gradually identifies things at higher levels of abstraction

Spain aprendizaje profundo
Finland syväoppiminen

deep neural network (DNN)

neural network containing multiple hidden layers

Finland syvä neuroverkko


Finland havaitseminen, ilmaiseminen, ilmaisu, löytäminen
Poland detekcja, wykrywanie, odkrywanie

detection and classification of acoustic scenes and events (DCASE)

detection error tradeoff (DET)

Plot of the false rejection rate versus false acceptance rate for classification systems

Finland virheiden kompromissi


Finland deterministinen
Poland deterministyczny

diarization error rate (DER)


Finland ulotteisuus

direction of arrival (DOA)

Finland äänen tulosuunta

discrete cosine transform (DCT)

Transform to represent data points with a sum of cosine functions

German Diskrete Kosinustransformation
Spain transformada de coseno discreta
Finland diskreetti kosinimuunnos
France transformée en cosinus discrète

discrete-time Fourier transform (DFT)

German Fouriertransformation für zeitdiskrete Signale

discriminant analysis

German Diskriminanzanalyse, Trennanalyse
Spain análisis discriminatorio, análisis discriminante
Finland erotteluanalyysi
France analyse discriminante
Poland analiza dyskryminacyjna

discriminative learning

modeling the dependence of a target variable y on an observed variable x

See also: generative learning


See also: similarity

German Dissimilarität, Unähnlichkeit
Spain desemejanza
Finland erilaisuus, erilaisuusmitta
France dissimilitude

domain adaptation

machine learning field to deal with cases in which a model trained on source distribution is used on different target distribution

France Adaptation de domaine

downmixing, down-mixing

mixing audio channels together


a length of audio signal

Finland kesto

dynamic range

German Dynamikumfang
Spain rango dinámico
Finland dynamiikka-alue, dynamiikka
France gamme dynamique
Poland zakres dynamiczny


early fusion

features from multiple sources are combined into a single feature set before feeding to a classifier.

See also: feature level fusion


a low-dimensional space into which high-dimensional vectors can be translated

See also: word embedding

Finland upotus


Finland kokemusperäinen, empiirinen


predictions of multiple models merged together

See also: ensemble learning

Finland kokoelma, kokoonpano

ensemble learning

use multiple learning algorithms to obtain better predictive performance than any of the constituent learning algorithms alone

France apprentissage ensembliste


while traning neural networks, one pass of the full training set

See also: deep neural network, neural network

Finland opetuskierros
Poland epoka

equal error rate (EER)

error rate

Finland virhetaajuus, vikataajuus, virhesuhde

evaluation metric

event-based metric

See also: evaluation metric

Finland tapahtumapohjainen metriikka

event offset

event onset

everyday environment

everyday listening

the interpretation of the sound in terms of its source

See also: brute-force search

Finland tyhjentävä haku

expectation maximization (EM)

an iterative method to find maximum likelihood or maximum a posteriori estimates of parameters in statistical models

German EM-Algorithmus
Spain algoritmo esperanza-maximización
Finland odotusarvon maksimointi
France algorithme espérance-maximisation


F-score, f1-score

an evaluation metric to take into account both the precision and the recall

See also: evaluation metric

Spain Valor-F

false negative (FN)

an example wrongly predicted as negative class

German falsch negativ
Spain negazione falsa
Finland negatiivisten tapausten virhe
France faux négatif

false positive (FP)

an example wrongly predicted as positive class

German falsch positiv
Spain positivo falso
Finland positiivisten tapausten virhe
France faux positif

fast Fourier transform (FFT)

German schnelle Fourier-Transformation
Spain Fourier rápido transforma
Finland nopea Fourier-muunnos
France transformée de Fourier rapide
Poland szybka transformata Fouriera


a measurable property of the acoustic signal

See also: acoustic feature

Finland piirre
Poland cecha, atrybut

feature engineering

using domain knowledge of the data to manually create suitable features for machine learning

See also: feature learning

feature extraction

Finland piirreirroitus, piirteistys
France extraction de caractéristique
Poland ekstrakcja cech

feature learning

automatically discover needed representations

See also: feature engineering

Spain aprendizaje de características

feature level fusion

features from multiple sources are combined into a single feature set before feeding to a classifier.

See also: early fusion

feature selection

Spain selección de variable
Finland piirrevalinta
France sélection de caractéristique
Poland wybór cech

federated learning

machine learning technique to train a model across multiple devices

See also: collaborative learning

German Föderales Lernen
Finland hajautettu oppiminen

feedforward neural network (FNN)

See also: deep neural network, neural network

Spain red neuronal prealimentada
Finland eteenpäin syöttävä hermoverkko
France réseau de neurones à propagation avant


German Filter
Spain filtro
Finland suodin, suodatin
France filtre
Poland filtr

filter bank

an array of band-pass filters

Spain banco de filtros híbrido
Finland suodinpankki
Poland bank filtrów


classification based on user's tags

Spain folcsonomía
Finland folksonomia
France folksonomie


German Rahmen, Auswahlgrundlage
Spain marco
Finland kehys
France base de sondage
Poland ramka

frame blocking

See also: frame

frame stacking

frequency domain

See also: time domain

German Frequenzbereich
Spain dominio de frecuencia
Finland taajuusalue
France domaine de fréquence
Poland dziedzina częstotliwości

frequency resolution

Finland taajuusresoluutio, taajuuserottelutarkkuus
Poland rozdzielczość częstotliwościowa

fully connected layer

See also: deep neural network, neural network

Finland täysin kytketty kerros


gammatone feature cepstral coefficients (GFCC)

gammatone filter

gated recurrent unit (GRU)

Gaussian mixture model (GMM)

See also: mixture model

Finland Gaussin sekoitemalli, Gaussinen sekoitemalli

generalisation, generalization

model's ability to predict correctly on data not used for training the model

Finland yleistäminen, yleistys

generative adversarial network (GAN)

technique where a generator generates data candidates and a discriminator evaluates them.

See also: deep neural network, neural network

generative learning

See also: discriminative learning

Finland generatiivinen oppiminen

ground truth


hand-crafted feature

using domain knowledge of the data to manually create suitable features for machine learning

See also: feature engineering


Finland harmoninen
Poland harmoniczny
Finland pään siirtofunktio


a practical and suboptimial solution

hidden layer

in neural network, layer between the input layer and the output layer

See also: deep neural network, neural network

Finland piilokerros
Poland warstwa ukryta

hidden Markov model (HMM)

German verborgenes Markow-Modell, verdecktes Markow-Modell
Spain modelo oculto de Márkov, modelo de Markov ocultado
Finland kätketty Markovin malli, Markovin piilomalli
France modèle de Markov caché, modèle caché de Markov
Poland ukryte modele Markowa

hierarchical classification

German hierarchische Klassifikation, geschachtelte Klassifikation
Spain clasificación jerárquica
Finland hierarkkinen luokittelu
France classification hiérarchique
Poland klasyfikacja hierarchiczna

histogram of oriented gradients (HOG)

France histogramme de gradient orienté

holdout data

examples which are only used for testing the system's performance

See also: cross-validation


in machine learning, a variable which is set before the learning process starts

See also: parameter

Finland hyperparametri


Finland hyponyymi, alakäsite




Finland toteutus
Poland implementacja

impulse response

German Impulsantwort
Spain Respuesta a impulso
Finland impulssivaste
Poland odpowiedź impulsowa

independent component analysis (ICA)


Finland indeksointi

information retrieval

Finland tiedonhaku
Poland wyszukiwanie informacji, pozyskiwanie informacji


Finland sisäänmeno, syöte, tulo, otto

input layer

See also: deep neural network, neural network

Finland syötekerros
Poland warstwa wejściowa

inter-annotator agreement

a measurement of how well human annotators agree while annotation task

interclass correlation

German Korrelation zwischen den Klassen
Spain correlación interclase
Finland luokkien välinen korrelaatio
France corrélation entre classes, corrélation interclasses

intermediate statistics

intraclass correlation

German Korrelation innerhalb der Klassen
Spain correlación intraclase
Finland sisäkorrelaatio, luokkiensisäinen korrelaatio
France corrélation interne, corrélation intraclasse

inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT)

Poland odwrotna transformata Fouriera



Finland värinä
Poland drżenie, rozsynchronizowanie


k-fold cross-validation

See also: cross-validation

Finland k-kertainen ristiinvalidointi, k-ositettu ristiinvalidointi

k-nearest-neighbor (kNN)

See also: nearest neighbor

Finland k:n lähimmän naapurin menetelmä


Finland ydin
Poland jądro


Finland tietämys
Poland wiedza


labeled example

an example with audio and assigned category label

language acquisition

German Spracherwerb
Spain desarrollo del lenguaje
Finland kielenoppiminen
France acquisition du langage

late fusion

Combaning outputs from multiple classifiers.

latent variable

a variable that is not directly observed but is inferred based on a model from other observed variables

German nicht beobachtbare Variable, latente Variable
Spain variable latente
Finland piilomuuttuja, latentti muuttuja
France variable latente


in neural network, a set of neurons

See also: deep neural network, neural network

Finland kerros
Poland warstwa


a board showing the ranking of participant in a competition

Finland tulostaulukko

learning rate

a hyperparameter to control the size of the learning step, gradient step

See also: deep neural network, neural network

Finland oppimisnopeus


German Likelihood
Spain verosimilitud
Finland uskottavuus
France vraisemblance
Poland prawdopodobieństwo

likelihood ratio test

German Likelihood-Verhältnistest
Spain prueba de la razón de la verosimilitud
Finland uskottavuusosamäärätesti
France test du rapport des vraisemblances

linear discriminant analysis (LDA)

linear prediction

a mathematical operation to estimate future values as a linear function of previous values

German Lineare vorhersage
Finland lineaariprediktio, lineaarinen ennustus, lineaarinen ennustaminen
Poland predykcja liniowa

linear prediction cepstral coefficients (LPCC)

local binary patterns (LBP)

France motif binaire local


Finland paikannus, lokalisaatio
Poland lokalizacja

long short-term memory (LSTM)

See also: deep neural network, neural network

German langes Kurzzeitgedächtnis

loss function

a function to measure how far prediction are from its label

German Verlustfunktion
Spain función de pérdida
Finland tappiofunktio
France fonction de perte


German Lautheit
Spain Sonoridad
Finland äänekkyys
France Sonie
Poland głośność


machine learning (ML)

field of artificial intelligence that uses statistical techniques to give computer systems the ability to "learn" from data, without being explicitly programmed

German Maschinelles Lernen
Spain aprendizaje automático
Finland koneoppiminen
France apprentissage automatique
Poland uczenie maszynowe

machine listening

field of study of algorithms and systems for audio understanding by machine

Finland konekuulo
Poland słyszenie maszynowe


See also: evaluation metric

Finland makrokeskiarvoistaminen

magnitude response

Finland magnitudivaste

majority voting

Poland głosowanie większościowe

maximum likelihood estimator (MLE)

German Maximum-Likelihood-Schätzer, ML-Schätzer
Spain estimador máxima verosímilitud
Finland suurimman uskottavuuden estimaattori, SU-estimaattori
France estimateur du maximum de vraisemblance

mean square error (MSE)

See also: root mean square error

German mittleres Fehlerquadrat
Spain error cuadrático medio
Finland keskineliövirhe, keskimääräinen neliövirhe, keskineliöpoikkeama
France erreur quadratique moyenne
Poland błąd średniokwadratowy

mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs)

German Mel-Frequenz-Cepstrum-Koeffizienten
Finland Mel-kepstrikertoimet, mel-taajuus kepstrikertoimet

mel scale

non-linear perceptual frequency scale where listners judge frequencies to be equal in distance from one another.

Spain Escala Mel
Finland mel-asteikko
France Échelle des mels

mel-scaled spectrogram


See also: evaluation metric

Finland mikrokeskiarvoistaminen


See also: batch

Finland pienerä


German Fehlklassifikation
Spain clasificación errónea
Finland luokitteluvirhe, väärinluokittelu
France classification fausse

mixture model

See also: Gaussian mixture model

Finland sekoitemalli
Poland model mieszany

mixture signal

Finland modaalinen, modaali-, moodi-


in machine learning system, a parameter set learned from the training data

Finland malli
Poland model

model selection

a task of selecting a model from a set of candidate models based on data

Finland mallin valinta
Poland wybór modelu


Finland mallintaminen, mallinnus


related to one ears

Finland yksikorvainen


Finland monitorointi, valvonta, tarkkailu, seuranta

multi-class classification

classification type where prediction is done between three or more classes

Finland moniluokkainen luokittelu

multi-condition training

multi-label classification

classification type where multiple class labels may be assigned to each instance

See also: single-label classification

multi-task learning

approach where multiple learning tasks are solved at the same time

multichannel, multiple channel

See also: single-channel

Finland monikanavainen, monikanava-

multilayer perceptron (MLP)

See also: neural network, deep neural network

German Mehrlagiges Perzeptron
Spain perceptrón multicapa
Finland monikerroksinen perseptroniverkko
France perceptron multicouche
Poland perceptron wielowarstwowy

multiple kernel learning (MKL)

machine learning method to use a predefined set of kernels and learn optimal combination of these kernels

music information retrieval (MIR)

interdisciplinary science of retrieving information from music

Spain recuperación de información musical
Finland musiikkitiedonhaku



an ordered sequence of N items

See also: bigram, trigram

naive Bayesian classification

Finland naiivi bayesiläinen luokittelu
Poland naiwna klasyfikacja bayesowska


Finland kapeakaistainen, kapeakaista-
Poland wąskopasmowy

nearest neighbor

See also: k-nearest-neighbor

Finland lähin naapuri
France Recherche des plus proches voisins

neural network

network of (artificial) neurons

German neuronales Netzwerk
Spain red de los nervios
Finland neuroverkko, hermoverkko
France réseau de neurones
Poland sieć neuronowa


a node in a neural network taking in multiple values and generating single value as an output

Finland neuroni
Poland neuron


German Geräusch
Spain Ruido
Finland kohina, melu, häly, häiriö
Poland szum, hałas

noise suppression

non-negative matrix factorization (NMF)

Spain factorización no negativa de matrices
Poland nieujemna faktoryzacja macierzy

nonlinear, non-linear

Finland epälineaarinen
Poland nieliniowy

normal distribution

German Normalverteilung
Spain distribución normal
Finland normaalijakauma
France distribution normale
Poland rozkład normalny


converting values into standard range of values

Spain normalización
Finland normalisaatio
Poland normalizacja

null hypothesis

general statement that there is no relationship between two measured phenomena

German Nullhypothese
Spain hipótesis de nulidad, hipótesis nula
Finland nollahypoteesi
France hypothèse nulle, hypothèse zéro
Poland hipoteza zerowa



a metric the algorithm tries to optimize

Finland tavoite, päämäärä

one-hot encoding

representing categorical variables as binary vectors so that only single element is set to one

one-shot learning

machine learning approach where aim is to learn from a single training example


a structure of concepts or entities within a domain which are organized by relationships

German Ontologie
Finland ontologia
France ontologie
Poland ontologia

open set classification


in neural network, an implementation of gradient descent algorithm

Finland optimoija


observation points that are distant from other observations

German Ausreißer
Spain valores extremos, valores atípicos, elemento raro
Finland poikkeavat havainnot, vieraat havainnot, ulkopuoliset havainnot
France valeurs aberrantes, observations aberrantes
Poland wartości odstające


See also: input

Finland ulostulo, lähtö, anto, tuloste

output layer

last layer of a neural network outputting predictions

See also: deep neural network, neural network

Finland vastekerros
Poland warstwa wyjściowa


a model that models the training data too closely and fails to predict correcly on new data

See also: underfitting

German Überanpassung
Spain sobreajuste
Finland ylisovittaminen, ylisovittuminen
France surapprentissage
Poland przeuczenie, przetrenowanie



Finland rinnakkainen, rinnakkais-
Poland równoległy


in machine learning, a variable which is adjusted during the learning process

See also: hyperparameter

Finland parametri


Finland jäsentäminen

part of speech (POS)

See also: part-of-speech tagging

German Wortart
Spain categoría gramatical
Finland sanaluokka
France nature
Poland część mowy

part-of-speech tagging (POS tagging)

the process of marking up a word in a text as corresponding to a particular part of speech

See also: part of speech

German Part-of-speech-Tagging
Spain etiquetado gramatical
Finland sanaluokan merkitseminen
France étiquetage morpho-syntaxique


Finland hahmo

pattern recognition

German Mustererkennung
Spain reconocimiento de formas, reconocimiento de patrones
Finland hahmontunnistus
France identification des signes, reconnaissance des formes
Poland rozpoznawanie wzorca


German Wahrnehmung
Spain percepción
Finland havainto, havaitseminen
Poland percepcja


an algorithm which takes multiple input values, runs a function on the weighted sum of the inputs and computes a single output value


See also: perception

Finland havainnonmukainen

perceptual spread


in machine learning, refers to the goodness of the model's predictions

Finland suorituskyky


German Tonhöhe
Spain altura
Finland äänenkorkeus, sävelkorkeus
Poland wysokość dźwięku

pitch shifting

See also: pitch

German Tonhöhenänderung
Finland äänenkorkeuden muuttaminen

polyphonic annotation


in neural network, reducing matrix into a smaller matrix

See also: deep neural network, neural network

Finland kokooma, keräys

posterior probability

German A-posteriori-Wahrscheinlichkeit
Spain Probabilidad a posteriori
Finland posteriori todennäköisyys
Poland prawdopodobieństwo a posteriori

pre-trained model

a model which has been already trained

Finland esiopetettu malli


a measure how often prediction is correct when predicting the positive class

See also: recall, F-score, evaluation metric

German Präzision
Spain precisión
Finland tarkkuus, täsmällisyys
France précision, reproducibilité


system's output for the input example

Finland ennustaminen, ennuste

prediction error

Finland ennustevirhe
Poland błąd predykcji

principal component analysis (PCA)

a statistical procedure that uses an orthogonal transformation to convert a set of observations of possibly correlated variables into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal components

German Hauptkomponentenanalyse
Spain análisis de componentes principales
Finland pääkomponenttianalyysi

prior distribution

Finland priorijakauma

prior probability, a priori probability

See also: prior distribution

German Prior-Wahrscheinlichkeit, A-priori-Wahrscheinlichkeit
Spain probabilidad a priori, apuestas a priori
Finland prioritodennäköisyys
France probabilité a priori


German Wahrscheinlichkeit
Spain probabilidad
Finland todennäköisyys
France probabilité
Poland prawdopodobieństwo, szansa

probability measure

Finland todennäköisyysmitta


Finland karsiminen, karsinta


the scientific study of sound perception and audiology

German Psychoakustik
Spain psicoacústica
Finland psykoakustiikka
France psychoacoustique
Poland psychoakustyka


quantization, quantizing

German Quantisierung
Spain cuantificación digital
Finland kvantisointi
France quantification
Poland kwantyzacja


random effect

Finland satunnaisvaikutus
Poland efekt losowy

random forest (RF)

an ensemble learning method which constructs a multiple decision trees at training stage

Finland satunnaismetsä
France forêt d'arbres décisionnels

random noise

Finland satunnaiskohina
Poland szum losowy


German Zufallszuteilung, Randomisierung
Spain aleatorización
Finland satunnaistaminen
France randomisation, arrangement au hasard, caractère aléatoire


a measure how many positive classes were correctly predicted

See also: precision, F-score, evaluation metric

Finland saanti

reciever operating characteristic curve (ROC curve)

a curve of true positive rate versus false positive rate at different classification thresholds

Finland toimintaominaiskäyrä, ROC-käyrä


Finland tunnistaminen

recurrent neural network (RNN)

a neural network to model sequential interactions through a hidden stage or memory

See also: neural network, deep neural network

German Rekurrentes Neuronales Netz
Finland uusiutuva neuroverkko, toistuva neuroverkko
France réseau de neurones récurrents

recursive quantitative analysis

reference label

regression analysis

German Regressionsanalyse
Spain análisis de la regresión
Finland regressioanalyysi
Poland analiza regresji


in machine learning, penalizes a model's compelixity in order to prevent overfitting

Spain regularización
Finland regularisointi
France régularisation
Poland regularyzacja

reinforcement learning

machine learning technique to focusing on peformance, finding a balance between exploration of new knowledge and exploitation of current knowledge

German Bestärkendes Lernen
Spain aprendizaje por refuerzo
Finland vahvistusoppiminen, palauteoppiminen
France apprentissage par renforcement


Finland säilö, tietolähde


German Reproduzierbarkeit, Vergleichbarkeit
Spain reproductibilidad
Finland toistettavuus
France reproductibilité


Finland haku


German Nachhall
Spain reverberación
Finland jälkikaiku, jälkikaiunta, kaiunta
Poland pogłos


German Robustheit
Spain robustez
Finland robustisuus, vakaus, jäykkyys
France robustesse

room response

room simulation

root mean square error (RMSE)

See also: mean square error

German Wurzel der mittleren quadratischen Abweichung, Wurzel des mittleren quadratischen Fehlers, Wurzel des mittleren quadratischen Gesamt-Fehlers
Spain desviación cuadrática media, desviación standard, desviación típica, desviación estándar, error cuadrático medio
Finland keskineliövirheen neliöjuuri
France écart quadratique moyen, écart type, déviation typique, écart-étalon, erreur quadratique moyenne, erreur en moyenne quadratique



Finland keskeisyys


Finland keskeinen

sampling frequency

Finland näytetaajuus, näytteenottotaajuus
Poland częstotliwość próbkowania

sampling rate

Finland näytenopeus, näytetaajuus

search algorithm

German Suchverfahren
Spain algoritmo de búsqueda
Finland hakualgoritmi
France algorithme de recherche

segment-based metric

See also: evaluation metric

Finland segmenttipohjainen metriikka


Finland segmentointi
Poland segmentacja

self-organizing map (SOM)

artificial neural network that is trained using unsupervised learning to produce a low-dimensional discretized representation of the input space

German Selbstorganisierende Karte
Spain mapa autoorganizado
Finland itseorganisoituva kartta
France carte auto adaptative
Poland sieć samoorganizująca się, sieć Kohonena

semi-supervised learning

machine learning technique to use small amount of labeled data and large amount of unlabeled data in the learning stage

Spain aprendizaje semisupervisado
Finland puoliohjattu oppiminen
France apprentissage semi-supervisé


See also: evaluation metric

Finland herkkyys, sensitiivisyys


Finland anturi, ilmaisin, sensori

sensor node

See also: sensor


short-time Fourier transform (STFT)

German Kurzzeit-Fourier-Transformation
Spain transformada de Fourier de tiempo reducido
Finland lyhytaikainen Fourier-muunnos
France transformée de Fourier à court terme

signal modeling

Finland signaalin mallinnus

signal processing

German Signalverarbeitung
Finland signaalinkäsittely
Poland przetwarzanie sygnałów

signal-to-interference ratio (SIR)

Finland signaali-häiriösuhde
France rapport signal sur interférence

signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)

German Signal-Rausch-Verhältnis
Spain relación señal/ruido
Finland signaali-kohinasuhde, häiriöetäisyys
Poland stosunek sygnału do szumu

significance level

Finland merkitsevyystaso
Poland poziom istotności


German Ähnlichkeit
Spain semejanza, similtud
Finland samanlaisuus, samankaltaisuus, yhtäläisyys
France ressemblance, similarité, similtude
Poland podobieństwo

similarity measure

a measure to determine how similar two examples are

See also: similarity

Finland samankaltaisuusmitta
Poland miara podobieństwa


See also: multichannel

single-label classification

classification type where single class label may be assigned to each instance

See also: binary classification, multi-label classification

sinusoidal modeling

situational awareness (SA)

the perception of environmental elements and events with respect to time or space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their future status

German Situationsbewusstsein
Spain consciencia situacional
Finland tilannetietoisuus, tilannekuva


German Glättung
Spain suavización, suavizamiento, ajustamiento
Finland tasoittaminen, silotus, tasoitus, silottaminen
France lissage, ajustement, graduation

sound event

Finland äänitapahtuma
Poland zdarzenie akustyczne

sound event detection (SED)

See also: sound event

Finland äänitapahtuman havaitseminen, äänitapahtuman tunnistus

sound event instance

sound pressure

German Schalldruckpegel
Spain nivel de presión sonora
Finland äänenpaine, äänipaine
France pression acoustique
Poland ciśnienie akustyczne

sound pressure level (SPL)

See also: sound pressure

Finland äänenpainetaso, äänipainetaso

sound quality

Finland äänenlaatu
Poland jakość dźwięku

sound source

Finland äänilähde

source proximity

Finland äänilähteen läheisyys

sparse matrix

matrix which has elements predominantly zero

German Dünnbesetzte Matrix
Spain matriz dispersa
Finland harva matriisi
France matrice creuse
Poland macierz rzadka


number of zero elements a matrix divided by the total number of elements

speaker diarisation

Process of spliting audio signal in to segments accroding to the speakers

Finland puheen diarisointi


See also: evaluation metric

Finland tarkkuus, spesifisyys

spectral centroid

Finland spektrin keskipiste

spectral clustering

grouping related examples together using the eigenvalues of similarity matrix

Spain Agrupamiento espectral
France Partitionnement spectral

spectral envelope

Poland obwiednia widmowa

spectral flatness

spectral flux

Finland spektrin vuo

spectral moments

spectral roll-off

Finland spektrin rajataajuus, spektrin vinous

spectral slope

Finland spektrin kaltevuus, spektrin kulmakerroin


German Spektrogramm
Spain espectrograma
Finland spektrogrammi
France spectrogramme
Poland spektrogram


German Spektrum
Spain espectro
Finland spektri
France spectre
Poland widmo, spektrum

speech analysis

Finland puheanalyysi
Poland analiza mowy

speech enhancement

improvement of speech quality by using various algorithms

Finland puheen ehostus

speech processing

Finland puheteknologia

speech recognition

German Spracherkennung
Spain reconocimiento del habla
Finland puheentunnistus
France reconnaissance automatique de la parole
Poland rozpoznawanie mowy

speech segmentation

Finland puheen segmentointi
Poland segmentacja mowy

standard deviation

Finland keskihajonta, standardipoikkeama
Poland odchylenie standardowe

statistical model

German Statistisches Modell
Spain modelo probabilístico
Finland tilastollinen malli
France modèle statistique
Poland model statystyczny

statistical significance

German Statistische Signifikanz
Spain significación estadística
Finland tilastollinen merkitsevyys
France signification statistique


in convolution or pooling, the delta on horizontal or vertical dimension of the next input slice

strong annotation

strong label

subband power distribution (SPD)

supervised learning

learning method which learns from labeled examples

See also: unsupervised learning

German Überwachtes Lernen
Spain aprendizaje supervisado
Finland ohjattu oppiminen
France apprentissage supervisé
Poland uczenie pod nadzorem, uczenie nadzorowane

support vector machine (SVM)

Spain máquinas de vectores de soporte
Finland tukivektorikone
France machine à vecteurs de support


Finland järjestelmä

system development

Finland järjestelmäkehitys, järjestelmän kehitys



Finland tarra


a classification in a hierarchical system

German Taxonomie
Finland taksonomia, luokittelu
France taxonomie

temporal integration

Finland ajallinen integraatio

test set

subset of data used to test the system, disjunct from the training set

See also: training set, validation set

Finland testausjoukko, testijoukko

testing data

See also: test set

textual label


Finland tekstuuri

time domain

German Zeitbereich
Spain el dominio del tiempo
Finland aika-alue
France dans le domaine temporel

time domain envelope

Poland obwiednia w dziedzinie czasu

time-frequency representation

Finland aika-taajuusesitys
Poland reprezentacja czasowo-częstotliwościowa

time stretching

changing the duration of an audio singal without affecting its pitch

See also: pitch shifting


a process of determining the optimal parameters of the model

Finland opetus

training data

Finland opetusdata

training example

training set

subset of data used to train the system, disjunct from the test set

See also: test set, validation set

Finland opetusjoukko

transfer function

German Übertragungsfunktion
Spain función de transferencia
Finland siirtofunktio, muunnosfunktio
France fonction de transfert

transfer learning

a research problem focusing on storing knowledge gained while solving one problem and applying it to a different problem

Finland siirto-oppiminen, siirretty oppiminen
France apprentissage par transfert


Finland muunnos

transition probability

Finland siirtymätodennäköisyys


an ordered sequence of three items

See also: N-gram

France trigramme

true negative (TN)

an example correctly predicted as negative class

Finland oikea negatiivinen

true positive (TP)

an example correctly predicted as positive class

Finland oikea positiivinen



a model with low predictive ability because it does not model the training data well nor it does generalize to new data

See also: overfitting

Finland alisovittaminen

unsupervised learning

machine learning technique to learn from unlabeled data

See also: supervised learning

German Unüberwachtes Lernen
Spain aprendizaje no supervisado
Finland ohjaamaton oppiminen
France apprentissage non supervisé



Finland validointi

validation set

subset of data used to adjust hyperparameters, disjunct from the training set and test set

See also: training set, test set

Finland validointijoukko



German Waveform
Finland aaltomuoto


German Wavelets
Finland aallokkeet
France ondelettes

weak annotation

See also: annotation

weakly labeled


Finland laajakaistainen, laajakaista-

wildlife monitoring

Finland villieläinten seuranta, luonnon seuranta


See also: windowing function

Finland ikkunointi

windowing function

function that is zero-valued outside of some chosen interval

See also: windowing

German Fensterfunktion
Spain ventana
Finland ikkunointifunktio
France fenêtrage

word embedding

mapping word or phrase from the vocabulary into vector of real numbers

See also: embeddings

Finland sanojen upotus

word error rate (WER)

word sense disambiguation

identifying which sense of a word is used in a sentence, when the word has multiple meanings

German Disambiguierung
Spain desambiguación lingüística
Finland sananmerkitysten yksikäsitteistäminen
France désambiguïsation lexicale


Finland sanaverkko, wordnet


zero crossing rate (ZCR)

Finland nollanylitystaajuus, nollanylitystiheys